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Glossary

To help improve knowledge and understanding about KLINGSPOR, we have compiled a searchable glossary. KLINGSPOR's list of definitions includes both common and uncommon industry standard terms.


Fiberglass Fabrication Glossary

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A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z



A

Accelerator
A compound added to speed up the action of a catalyst in a resin mix.
Additive
A component that may be included in the formulation of the composite mixture to modify its properties and in general, enhance its processing or end-product performance. Additives may include catalysts, colorants, hardeners, accelerators, inhibitors, flame retardants and other ingredients.

C

Catalyst
In fiber reinforced plastics (FRP), the catalyst of the substance added to the gel coat or resin to initiate the curing process. The catalyst usually oxidizes an accelerator, creating free radicals. This will cause the resin or gel coat to polymerize or cross-link.
Closed Molding
A molding process using two matched molds. This method of molding reinforced plastic provides a good inside and outside surface. This type of mold tooling is much more expensive than open mold tooling, but generates fewer emissions.
Composite
A combination of one or more materials differing in form or composition. The individual constituents retain their identities; i.e. they do not meld although they act in concert. Normally, the components can be physically identified and exhibit an interface between one another.
Crosslinking
The linking together of long resin molecules by a monomer. This is also called “polymerization”.
Curing
A polymerization process transforming the liquid resin to a solid, creating the maximum physical properties attainable from the materials.

F

Filament Winding
The process of winding resin-impregnated fiber or tape on a mandrel surface in a precise geometric pattern. This is accomplished by rotating the mandrel while a delivery head precisely positions fibers on the mandrel surface.
Filler
An inorganic addition to the composite matrix that may impart a variety of performance improvements. This includes shrinkage control, surface smoothness, water resistance and cost reduction and lower cost or density.

G

Gel Coat
A resin used as a surface coat for molded fiberglass products. It provides an aesthetic enhancement to the surface and overall protection for the fiberglass laminate.

H

Hand Lay-Up
Placing reinforcement material and resin onto a mold by hand. The resin application is frequently accomplished with a spray gun.
Hardener
An additive that aids in the curing process.

I

Inhibitor
An additive that prevents premature polymerization of the resin bond.

M

Mold release agent
Waxes or stearates applied to the mold to aid in separation of the mold from the finished product.

O

Open molding
An open mold provides a finished and dimensionally accurate surface upon which the lay-up can be placed. Gel coat is usually sprayed first on the prepared surface of the mold. The reinforcement materials are applied on top of the gel coat. This form of molding provides one finished side.

R

Reinforcement
Consists of strong materials, including glass fibers, bonded to or combined into a resin to improve mechanical properties of the composite.
Resin

An open mold provides a finished and dimensionally accurate surface upon which the lay-up can be placed. Gel coat is usually sprayed first on the prepared surface of the mold. The reinforcement materials are applied on top of the gel coat. This form of molding provides one finished side.

When catalyzed, the resin cures going through a polymerization process transforming the liquefied resin into a solid. The cured resin and reinforcement creates a composite material with mechanical properties that exceed those of the individual components. Two commonly used resins are:

  • Phenolic resins – phenolic composites have many desirable performance qualities including high temperature resistance, creep resistance, excellent thermal insulation and sound damping properties, corrosion resistance, and excellent fire/smoke/smoke toxicity properties.
  • Polyester resins – these resins offer a balance of properties such as versatility in processing and dimensional stability. Polyesters are popular due to lower cost and ease of handling and processing.
Resin Transfer Molding (RTM)
A closed-mold pressure injection system which allows for faster gel and cure times compared to contact molded parts. The process uses polyester matrix materials systems association with cold-molding and most reinforcement material types such as continuous strand, cloth, woven roving, long fiber and chopped strand.

S

Seemann Composite Resin Infusion Molding Process (SCRIMP)
A vacuum infusion molding process that eliminates volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions.
Styrene
An unsaturated hydrocarbon used in plastics. In polyester resin, it serves as a solvent and as a co-reactant in the polymerization process that occurs during curing.

T

Thermoplastic
A resin that is not cross-linked. Thermoplastic resin generally can be re-melted and recycled.
Thermoset
A resin that is formed by cross linking polymer chains. A thermoset cannot be melted and recycled because the polymer chains form a three dimensional network.

W

Wet-out
Saturating reinforcing material (glass fiber) with resin. The rate of speed of saturation is a key factor in effective and profitable molding.